Sinonasal masses are not an uncommon spectrum of diseases. They are frequently encountered in Sudan, sometimes with variability in modalities across the country. The objective of this study is to document the pattern of sinonasal masses in Sudanese patients and to highlight the knowledge of the modalities, clinical presentations, and management. As a consequence, this will raise awareness especially of the general practitioners and family physicians and hence the community locally and regionally. Early diagnosis and appropriate management can reduce the rate of recurrence, fatal complications, and hence morbidity and mortality.
This is a prospective descriptive, comparative hospital-based study conducted from January 2020 to January 2021. All patients with sinonasal masses, who came to Khartoum ENT Teaching Hospital seeking medical advice during the above-mentioned period were included in the study provided they satisfy the inclusion criteria. Enrollment was optional with the right to withdraw at any time. Consent was verbal with the reassurance about the aspect of confidentiality, privacy, and consent of the data. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee (EDC) SMSB and from the research committee of Khartoum teaching hospital. Analysis was done using a computer and the statistical package of social sciences SPSS V.25
A total number of 244 patients were studied. The age group of 21–40 years was the most encountered with the disease (42.6%). Two hundred three patients (83%) had a non-neoplastic disease, (9%) benign neoplastic lesions, and (8%) malignant neoplastic lesions. The non-neoplastic group was dominated by nasal polyposis of which the fungal were the most common (50%). Among benign neoplastic lesions, pyogenic granuloma ranked first (24%). Among malignant neoplastic lesions, squamous cell carcinoma dominated the epithelial origin lesions (71%) and Rhabdomyosarcoma dominated the connective tissue cell types (50%). Nasal obstruction is the most common complaint (94.7%) followed by nasal discharge (64.8%) then anosmia (53.3%). Endoscopic surgery was done in (84.4%) of patients, combined approach endoscopic and open surgery in (5.3%) while open surgery alone was done in 2.5%. Radiation and chemotherapy were used in 2% each, while chemo-radiation was used in (2.5%). The rest of the cases (1.3%) were managed by surgery followed by chemoradiation.
Patients with sinonasal masses in Sudan especially the age group 21–40 years must be seen in specialized Otolaryngology clinics to pick, diagnose and treat significant diseases in an early stage. Radiology and histopathology are a must in sinonasal swellings to diagnose malignant diseases at an early stage. Nasosinus fungal polyposis being the commonest in non-neoplastic lesions, the commonest among all sinonasal masses added together, and a known reported endemic disease in the country must receive special consideration and investigation for early diagnosis and treatment.