- Original article
- Open Access
Studying some elicited verbal prosodic patterns in Egyptian children
The Egyptian Journal of Otolaryngology volume 28, pages 242–250 (2012)
Despite the large number of native Arabic speakers, Arabic prosodic skills have not been studied thoroughly.
This study aimed to examine the perceptual judgment and acoustic characteristics of some elicited verbal prosodic patterns in a group of typically developing Egyptian children aged 2 years 2 months through 5 years 11 months in order to aid in the early identification of prosodic impairment in this age group.
Participants and methods
The sample included 40 healthy typically developing Egyptian children aged 2 years 2 months through 5 years 11 months old. Participants were divided into two groups: group I included 20 children aged 2 years 2 months to 3 years 11 months old. Group II included 20 children aged 4 years 2 months to 5 years 11 months old.
The prosodic patterns studied included socioaffective as well as grammatical patterns. The prosody of each elicited response was perceptually studied and acoustically analyzed. The results obtained were analyzed statistically using comparative and correlation studies.
(a) Significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to the perceptual scores of all the prosodic patterns studied, except resentment and interrogative patterns. (b) Significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to acoustic values. (c) For all the studied parameters, no significant differences were found between males and females. (d) The highest mean perceptual score obtained by the studied group was that obtained for the interrogative pattern, whereas the lowest ones obtained were for exception and warning patterns. (e) A significant positive correlation was found between age and the Total Perceptual Prosodic Scores (TPPS). (f) A significant negative correlation was found between duration and most of the perceptual scores. (g) A significant positive correlation was found between frequency and most of the perceptual scores. (h) A significant positive correlation was found between energy and most of the perceptual scores.
(a) The production of different Arabic prosodic patterns is associated with changes in frequency, duration, and energy. (b) The easiest prosodic patterns to be imitated by children are the interrogative and resentment patterns, whereas the most difficult ones were the exception, disapproval, and warning patterns. (c) Elicited prosodic patterns do not differ with sex in children.
Hellermann J. The sequential and prosodic co-construction of a ‘quiz game’ activity in classroom talk. J Pragmatic. 2005; 37: 919–944
Shriberg LD, Kent RD. Clinical phonetics. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 2003.
Jusczyk PW, Cutler A, Redanz NJ. Infants’ preference for the predominant stress patterns of English words. Child Dev. 1993; 64: 675–687
Gerken LA, McGregor K. An overview of prosody and its role in normal and disordered child language. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 1998; 7: 38–48
Bouston F. Prosody: the music of language and speech. The ASHA leader 2003; 5:7-9. Available at: http://www.asha.org/leader/2003
McCann J, Peppé S, Gibbon FE, O’Hare A, Rutherford M. Prosody and its relationship to language in school-aged children with high-functioning autism. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2007; 42: 682–702
Merewether FC, Alpert M. The components and neuroanatomic bases of prosody. J Commun Disord. 1990; 23: 325–336
Shriberg LD, Paul R, McSweeny JL, Klin AM, Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR. Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2001; 44: 1097–1115
Snow D. Prosodic markers of syntactic boundaries in the speech of 4-year-old children with normal and disordered language development. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1998; 41: 1158–1170
Baum SR. The role of fundamental frequency and duration in the perception of linguistic stress by individuals with brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1998; 41: 31–40
American Speech Language Hearing Association. Childhood apraxia of speech [technical report]. ASHA Practice Policy. 2007. Available at: www.asha.org/policy [Accessed on 2007]
Cutler A. Lexical stress. The handbook of speech perception. 1st ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2005. pp. 264–389.
Bolinger D. Around the edges of intonation. Harv Educ Rev. 2004; 34: 282–296
Kochanski G, Grabe E, Coleman J, Rosner B. Loudness predicts prominence: fundamental frequency lends little. J Acoust Soc Am. 2005; 118: 1038–1054
El Kamash S. Lexicon and semantics. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Faculty of Arts and Humanities, King Abdel Aziz University; 2007.
Greenberg S, Carvey H, Hitchcock L, Chang S. Temporal properties of spontaneous speech–a syllable-centric perspective. J Phonetics. 2003; 31: 465–485
Adam G. From variable to optimal grammar: evidence from language acquisition and language change. Tel Aviv: Tel-Aviv University; 2000.
McCann J, Peppé S, Gibbon F, O’Hare A, Rutherford M. The prosody-language relationship in children with high functioning autism. Autism: an integrated view from neurocognitive, clinical and intervention research. 1st ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2006. pp. 214–235.
Grossman RB, Bemis RH, Plesa Skwerer D, Tager Flusberg H. Lexical and affective prosody in children with high-functioning autism. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2010; 53: 778–793
Clark J, Yallop C, Fletcher J. An introduction to phonetics and phonology. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2007.
El Aini SH. Vowels in Arabic language: arabic phonology. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Cultural Literature Club; 1983.
Schultz MC. Word influences in speech discrimination. J Speech Hear Res. 1964; 64: 395–400
Mostafa E. Arab mosque lessons. Beirut, Lebanon: Modern Library; 1993.
Anees I. Speech sounds. Cairo, Egypt: American Inglo Library; 2000.
Weinberg WA, Harper CR, Brumback RA. Attention, behavior and learning problems in children: protocols for diagnosis and treatment. 1st ed. BC Decker: Hamilton, Ontario, Canada PMPH USA; 2001.
Kadzasov SV, Krivnova OF. Obschaja fonetiks. [Obschaja Phonetics]. Moscow: Russian University for the Humanities Press; 2001.
Robert D, van Valin JR. The aquisition of WH-Questions and the mechanisms of language acquisition. In Tomasello M, editor. The new psychology of language: cognitive and functional approaches to language structure. Psychology Press; 1998. pp. 221–249
Tong Z, Mark H, Stephen EL Mental state detection of dialogue system users via spoken language. USA: University of Illinois at Urban Champaign; 2008.
Lacheret A, Victorri B. The period intonation units of analysis for consideration of the French speaking: prosodic and linguistic issues. Verbum. 2002; 24: 55–72
Murray IR, Arnott JL. Toward the simulation of emotion in synthetic speech: a review of the literature on human vocal emotion. J Acoust Soc Am. 1993; 93: 1097–1108
Ishi CT, Campbell N Analysis of acoustic prosodic features of spontaneous expressive speech. Proceeding of 1st International Congress of Phonetics and Phonology, Japan; 2002
Zharkova NN. Acquisition of prosody in Russian. 2002 Department of Phonetics, State University of St. Petersburg, Russia; In SP-2002, 735–738
Stocksmeier T, Kopp S, Gibbon D. Synthesis of prosodic attitudinal variants in German backchannel ‘ja’. Proceedings of Interspeech; 27–31 August 2007; Antwerp, Belgium; 2007. p. 1290–1293
Brown Schmidt S, Byron DK, Tanenhaus MK. Beyond salience: interpretation of personal and demonstrative pronouns. J Mem Lang. 2005;53:292–313
Wolters M, Byron D. Prosody and the resolution of pronominal anaphora. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING00); 2000; 2:919–925. Saarbruken
Sobol Shikler T. Analysis of affective expression in speech. United Kingdom JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge University; 2009. p. 15.
Johnston T, Scherer RP. Vocal communication of emotion. In: Lewis M, Haviland Jones JM, editors. Handbook emotion. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2000. pp. 220–235.
Bod R, Hay J, Jannedy S. Probability theory in linguistics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2003.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Bahgat, M.B.A., Khaled, A.M., Aziz, A.A. et al. Studying some elicited verbal prosodic patterns in Egyptian children. Egypt J Otolaryngol 28, 242–250 (2012). https://doi.org/10.7123/01.EJO.0000418004.75823.4e
- elicited prosodic tasks
- prosodic patterns
- prosodic skills
- prosodic skills in Arabic-speaking children