Skip to main content

The impact of high intensity versus low intensity behavioral therapy in establishment of functional routines in Egyptian autistic children

Abstract

Objective

To compare the effect of high-intensity versus low-intensity treatment in the establishment of functional routines in autistic children.

Patients and Methods

This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 25 children of 2–6 years of age of both sexes at the Unit of Phoniatrics, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Alexandria Main University Hospitals. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. All cases included in the study underwent thorough history taking, comprehensive neurological examination, and diagnosis of autism based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth ed., Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Autism diagnostic interview-revised. The children were trained for 1 year using the STAR program. The children were divided into two groups: group I included 15 children who were trained 5 days per week, and group II included 10 children who were trained 3 days per week owing to family commitments.

Results

There was significant improvement in both groups in all lessons when comparing pretherapy and post-therapy results; however, group I showed significant degree of improvement when compared with group II in specific items.

Conclusion

Early intervention for autistic children helps in improving their prognosis and yields better results. The need to apply the treatment on daily basis is highly recommended.

References

  1. 1

    Filipek PA, Accardo PJ, Ashwal S, Baranek GT, Cook EHR, Dawson G, et al. Screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology 2000; 55:468–479.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Cooper JO, Heron TE, Heward WL. Applied behavior analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Siegel B. The world of the autistic child. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    McClannahan LE, Krantz PJ. Activity schedules for children with autism: teaching independent behavior. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Volkmar FR, McPartland J. From Kanner to DSM-5: Autism as an evolving diagnostic concept. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014; 10:193–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Mesibov GB, Schopler E, Schaffer B. Use of the childhood autism rating scale with autistic adolescents and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28:538–541.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Elsayed H. Accuracy of autism diagnostic interview-revised in categorizing Egyptian children with pervasive developmental disorders M.S. Thesis. Alexandria University, Faculty of Medicine, 2011.

  8. 8

    Fombonne E. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66:3–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Baron-Cohen S. The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends Cogn Sci 2002; 6:248–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Knickmeyer RC, Baron-Cohen S. Fetal testosterone and sex differences in typical social development and in autism. J Child Neurol 2006; 21:825–845.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Johnson CP, Myers SM. Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 2007; 120:1183–1215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Perry A, Cummings A, Dunn Geier J, Freeman NL, Hughes S, La Rose L, et al. Effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention in a large, community-based program. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2008; 2:621–642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Anderson SR, Avery DL, DiPietro EK, Edwards GL, Christian WP. Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Educ Treat Child 1987; 10:353–366.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Dawson G, Osterling J. Early intervention in autism. In: Guralnick MJ, Bennett FC, editors. The effectiveness of early intervention for at-risk and handicapped children. Orlando, FL: Academic Press 1997. pp. 307–326.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Reed P, Osborne LA, Corness M. Relative effectiveness of different home-based behavioral approaches to early teaching intervention. J Autism Dev Disord 2007; 37:1815–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Jacobson NS, Roberts LJ, Berns SB, Mc Glinchey JB. Methods for defining and determining the clinical significance of treatment effect: description, application and alternatives. J Consult Clin Psychol 1999; 67:300–307.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Heba E. Gaber BSc, MSc, MD.

Additional information

This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aboras, Y.A., Abdou, R.M. & Gaber, H.E. The impact of high intensity versus low intensity behavioral therapy in establishment of functional routines in Egyptian autistic children. Egypt J Otolaryngol 35, 115–121 (2019). https://doi.org/10.4103/ejo.ejo_52_18

Download citation

Keywords

  • autism
  • functional routinese
  • high-intensity treatment