- Original article
- Open Access
Hearing loss among hypertensive patients
The Egyptian Journal of Otolaryngology volume 35, pages307–312(2019)
Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Hypertensives have been observed to have elevated hearing thresholds in various studies.
Aims and objectives
The aims of this study were to assess the hearing thresholds of hypertensives in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and compare it with nonhypertensive controls.
Patients and methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted among hypertensives and age-matched and sex-matched controls from August 2015 to April 2016. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic and medical history. General physical examination and blood pressure measurements were done. Hearing thresholds were then measured with a diagnostic pure tone audiometer.
The pure tone average was calculated. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 23.
A total number of 104 participants were enrolled into the study. Fifty-two were hypertensives while the other 52 were nonhypertensive controls. The mean age of the participants was 49.1±10.3 years, with ages ranging from 34 to 85 years. There were 38 (36.5%) women and 66 (63.5%) men. Among the hypertensive participants, 20 (38.5%) had various degrees of hearing loss, whereas seven (13.5%) of the non-hypertensives had hearing loss (P=0.004, χ2=8.45). The mean pure tone average (air conduction) among the hypertensive participants was 27.8±13.3 dB HL and 16.7±7.9 dB HL among the nonhypertensive control group. Among the hypertensives, 17 (32.7%) had mild hearing loss, while all seven (13.5%) patients in the nonhypertensive group had mild hearing loss.
This study has observed a 38.5% prevalence of hearing loss among hypertensives. It has shown an association between hypertension and hearing thresholds. All frequencies tested were observed to have elevated hearing thresholds among hypertensives as compared with the nonhypertensive control group.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365:217–223.
Bromfield S, Muntner P. High blood pressure: the leading global burden of disease risk factor and the need for worldwide prevention programs. Curr Hypertens Rep 2013; 15:134–136.
Mathers C, Fat DM, Boerma JT. The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization 2008.
Adeloye D, Basquill C, Aderemi A, Thompson J, Obi F. An estimate of the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. J Hypertens 2015; 33:230–242.
Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health 2005; 4:2.
Bright T, Pallawela D. Validated smartphone-based apps for ear and hearing assessments: a review. JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol 2016; 3: e13.
Stevens G, Flaxman S, Brunskill E, Mascarenhas M, Mathers C, Finucane M. Global and regional hearing impairment prevalence: an analysis of 42 studies in 29 countries. Eur J Pub Health 2011; 23:146–152.
Olusanya BO, Neumann KJ, Saunders JE. The global burden of disabling hearing impairment: a call to action. Bull World Health Organ 2014; 92:367–373.
Kochkin S, Rogin CM. Quantifying the obvious: the impact of hearing instruments on quality of life. Hear Rev 2000; 7:6–34.
Rosenhall U, Sundh V. Age-related hearing loss and blood pressure. Noise Health 2006; 8:88–94.
Pillsbury HC. Hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia, chronic noise exposure: is there synergism in cochlear pathology?. Laryngoscope 1986; 96:1112–1138.
Agarwal S, Mishra A, Jagade M, Kasbekar V, Nagle SK. Effects of hypertension on hearing. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013; 65:614–618.
Tan TY, Rahmat O, Prepageran N, Fauzi A, Noran NH, Raman R. Hypertensive retinopathy and sensorineural hearing loss. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 61:275–279.
Mondelli MF, Lopes AC. Relation between arterial hypertension and hearing loss. Arq Int Otorrinolaringol 2009; 13:63–68.
Torre P, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R, Nondahl DM. The association between cardiovascular disease and cochlear function in older adults. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2005; 48:473–481.
Baraldi GS, Almeida LC, Borges AC. Hearing loss and hypertension: findings in an older by group. Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol 2004; 70:640–644.
Chang TY, Liu CS, Huang KH, Chen RY, Lai JS, Bao BY. High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers. Environ Health 2011; 10:35.
Przewożny T, Gójska-Grymajło A, Kwarciany M, Gąsecki D, Narkiewicz K. Hypertension and cochlear hearing loss. Blood pressure 2015; 24:199–205.
Levy BI, Schiffrin EL, Mourad JJ, Agostini D, Vicaut E, Safar ME, et al. Impaired tissue perfusion. Circulation 2008; 118:968–976.
Zdebik AA, Wangemann P, Jentsch TJ. Potassium ion movement in the inner ear: insights from genetic disease and mouse models. Physiology 2009; 24:307–316.
Bhargava M, Ikram MK, Wong TY. How does hypertension affect your eyes?. J Hum Hypertens 2012; 26:71–83.
Arlinger S. Psychoacoustic audiometry. In: Gleeson M, Browning GG, Burton MJ, Clarke R, Hibbert J, Jones NS, et al. editors. Scott –Brown’s otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, 7th ed. London: Hodder Arnold 2008. pp. 3260–3275.
World Health Organization. Prevention of blindness and deafness: grades of hearing impairment. Geneva: World Health Organization 2014.
de Moraes Marchiori LL, de Almeida Rego Filho E, Matsuo T. Hypertension as a factor associated with hearing loss. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 72:533–540.
Esparza CM, Jáuregui-Renaud K, Morelos CM, Muhl GE, Mendez MN, Carillo NS, et al. Systemic high blood pressure and inner ear dysfunction: a preliminary study. Clin Otolaryngol 2007; 32:173–178.
Chávez-Delgado ME, Vázquez-Granados I, Rosales-Cortés M, Velasco-Rodríguez V. Cochleovestibular dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2012; 63:93–101.
Gates GA, Cobb JL, D’Agostinho RB, Wolf A. The relation of hearing in the elderly to the presence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk Factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993; 119:156–161.
Narlawar UW, Surjuse BG, Thakre SS. Hypertension and hearing impairment in workers of iron and steel industry. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006; 50:60–66.
Shargorodsky J, Curhan SG, Eavey R, Curhan GC. A prospective study of cardiovascular risk factors and incident hearing loss in men. Laryngoscope 2010; 120:1887–1891.
This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Yikawe, S.S., Uguru, S.U., Solomon, J.H. et al. Hearing loss among hypertensive patients. Egypt J Otolaryngol 35, 307–312 (2019). https://doi.org/10.4103/ejo.ejo_16_19
- hearing loss
- pure tone audiometry