Skip to main content

Outcome of stuttering therapy on Egyptian school-aged children using the speak freely program

En

Abstract

Background

The training program presented depends on improving the physical dimension for stutters by teaching both stuttering modification and fluency-shaping techniques based on the Speak Freely Program.

Aim of the work

This study is designed to adapt and apply the ‘Speak Freely Program’ of stuttering intervention for Arabic-speaking school-aged stuttering children and to explore its effectiveness as a therapeutic tool.

Subjects and methods

The present work was carried out on 25 stuttering children of both sexes in the age range of 7–18 years. The participants were divided into two age groups: group I (7-12 years) and group II (12.1–18 years). Each participant was subjected to the protocol of stuttering evaluation as follows: (a) assessment of history and analysis of complaints; (b) observation of features of stuttered speech (core behavior, secondary reactions, devices to cancel stuttering, escape, antiexpectancy) and overt behaviors; (c) Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-3) was used to assess moments of stuttering in a speech sample and reading aloud; (d) psychometric battery was used to compare between pretherapeutic and post-therapeutic anxiety and depression scale; (d) two objective evaluations were used: first, spectral analysis to measure the voice onset time, formant transition, and vowel duration for all participants’ fluent productions of monosyllabic words with initial /t/ and /d/, and second, Visipitch to measure fundamental frequency, relative average perturbation, amplitude, shimmer, voiced percent (voiced%), voiceless%, and pause% in an automatic, reading, and spontaneous.

Results

The study showed that the younger stutterers achieved better outcome with the therapeutic program. The results of the SSI-3 and the anxiety and the depressive state of the studied children, respectively, showed a highly significant difference between the pretherapeutic and the post-therapeutic values of the two groups studied. Formant transition of the (voiced and voiceless) and the vowel duration of (voiceless) monosyllabic words showed a difference after therapy. Both groups showed higher post-therapeutic values for the voiced%, voiceless%, and the amplitude measurements.

Conclusion

To conclude, stuttering therapy alters the acoustic properties of stutterers’ fluent speech concomitant with reducing stuttering frequency speech samples.

References

  1. 1

    Irwin M. 50 years experience of stuttering: 14 strategies for change. One Voice 2007; 23: 16–19.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Lavid N, Franklin DL, Maguire GA Management of child and adolescent stuttering with olanzapine: three cases reports. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1999; 11: 233–236.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Prasse JE, Kikano GE. Stuttering: an overview. Am Fam Physician 2008; 77: 1271–1276.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Allen M. Speak freely: essential speaking skills for school age children who stutter. In: Allen M, eds. Therapist handbook. Evanston, IL; 2007. pp. 4–40.

  5. 5

    Riley GD. Stuttering severity instrument for children and adults-3rd (SSI-3). Austin, TX: Pro-ED; 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    El-Maghraby RM. Development of an Arabic language test for assessing language impaired chidren [PhD thesis]. Alexandria: Alexandria University, Faculty of Medicine; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Melika LK. Abstract reasoning. In: Melika LK, editor. The Stanford Binet intelligence scale Arabic examiner’s handbook. 4th ed. Cairo: Dar El-Maref Publishing; 1998. p. 37.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Abdel-Khalek AM, El-Nayal M. The construction of children’s anxiety scale and its relation to extraversion and neuroticism. J Psychol 1991; 18: 28–45.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Abdel-Khalek AM. The construction of a depression scale for Egyptian children. Derasat Nafseyah 1991; 1: 219–251.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Mohamed AW. CBRS for normal children. In: Mohamed AW, editor. Child behavior rating scale for normal/hearing impaired children. Cairo: El-Nahda El-Masrya Library; 2001. p. 25.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Taylor JA. A personality scale of manifest anxiety. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 1953; 48: 285–290.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Healy EC, Scott LA. Strategies for treating elementary school-age children who stutter: an integrative approach. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 1995; 26: 151–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Davis S, Shisca D, Howell P. Anxiety in speakers who persist and recover from stuttering. J Commun Disord 2007; 40: 398–417.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Yaruss JS. Assessing quality of life in stuttering treatment outcomes research. J Fluency Disord 2010; 35: 190–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Savithri SR. Some acoustic correlates of stuttering: a pre-post therapy comparison. Asia Pac Rehabil J 2002; 13: 133–138.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Metz DE, Samar VJ, Sacco PR. Acoustic analysis of stutterers’ fluent speech before and after therapy. J Speech Hear Res 1983; 26: 531–536.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Riley GD, Ingham JC. Acoustic duration changes associated with two types of treatment for children who stutter. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2000; 43: 965–978.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Trajkovski N, Andrews C, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A. Treating stuttering in a preschool child with syllable timed speech: a case report. Behavior Change 2006; 23: 270–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Onslow M, van Doorn J, Newman D Variability of acoustic segment durations after prolonged-speech treatment for stuttering. J Speech Hear Res 1992; 35: 529–536.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Metz DE, Schiavetti N, Sacco PR Acoustic and psychophysical dimensions of the perceived speech naturalness of nonstutterers and posttreatment stutterers. J Speech Hear Disord 1990; 55: 516–525.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Howell P, Vause L. Acoustic analysis and perception of vowels in stuttered speech. J Acoust Soc Am 1986; 79: 1571–1579.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Yaruss JS, Conture EG. F2 transitions during sound/syllable repetitions of children who stutter and predictions of stuttering chronicity. J Speech Hear Res 1993; 36: 883–896.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Dehqan A, Ali Dashti G, Mirzadeh M. Phonatory vocal tract stability in stuttering children before and after fluency-enhancing therapy. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2010; 8: 405–409.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Salihovic N, Junuzovic L, Ibrahimagic A, Beganovic L. Characteristics of voice in stuttering children. Acta Med Sal 2009; 38: 67–75.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. M. El-Maghraby MD.

Additional information

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abo Ras, Y.A., El-Maghraby, R.M. & Madkour, W.M. Outcome of stuttering therapy on Egyptian school-aged children using the speak freely program. Egypt J Otolaryngol 31, 188–195 (2015). https://doi.org/10.4103/1012-5574.161614

Download citation

Keywords

  • speak freely
  • stuttering
  • treatment of stuttering