Skip to main content
  • Original article
  • Open access
  • Published:

Noise-induced hearing loss among workers in textile factory




Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most common chronic health problems, which produces gradual progressive impairment and disturbs the patient’s quality of life. Industries in general and especially textile ones produce noise levels that, if intensified, can cause damage to worker’s hearing. Hence, premature hearing loss is a well-known outcome of noise exposure at work in industrial workers.

Aims of the work

The aim of the study was to assess hearing threshold levels among exposed patients and to compare them with the nonexposed control group and to evaluate other variables such as outer hair cell and medial olivocochlear bundle function represented with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) testing with and without suppression and to find the relationship with duration of exposure if any.

Patients and methods

The study included 145 patients and same number of controls who were exposed to hazardous levels of noise for variable durations. All participants were subjected to audiological examination including basic audiological evaluation, otoacoustic emissions, and otoacoustic emissions with contralateral suppression (CAS).


Of the 145 patients (290 ears), 214 ears showed sensorineural hearing loss (73.8%). Sensorineural hearing loss was mild in 63 (43.44%) ears, moderate in 82 (56.55%) ears, and severe in 69 (47.58%) ears. TEOAEs were found in those with mild hearing loss with significantly lower amplitudes. Intact suppression (CAS) was significantly lower for the study group than for the control group. However, there was no significant difference in level of suppression for different duration of exposure.


A high incidence for NIHL is present among workers in textile factories, which indicate the mandatory use of different protective measures. CAS can be used as a predictor for the susceptibility to NIHL.


  1. Ologe E, Akande M, Olajide G. Occupational noise exposure and sensorineural hearing loss among workers of steel rolling mill. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 263: 618–621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Debarah N, Robert N, Marisol B, Marilyn F. The global burden of occupational noise induced hearing loss. Am J Ind Med 2005.

  3. Catlin I. Noise induced hearing loss. Am J Otol 1986; 7: 141–149.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Shafi M. A complete set of labor laws containing workmen’s compensation. Act 1923. Karachi, Pakistan: Bureau of Labor Publications; 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Tatsuya Y, Nuttall Alfred L, Craig H, Yehoash R, Miller M. Role of glutathione in protection against noise-induced hearing loss. Brain Res 1998; 784: 82–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chang J, Chen J, Lien H, Sung C. Hearing loss in workers exposed to toluene and noise. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114: 1283–1286.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Gelfand S. Auditory system and related disorders. Essentials of audiology. 2nd ed. New York: Thieme; 2001. 202.

    Google Scholar 

  8. OSHA 3074. 2002; Hearing conservation Revised. Publication of Occupational Safety and Health Association

  9. Caldart A, Adriano C, Igor Terruel I, Martins R, Mocellin M. The prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among textile industry workers. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 10: 10–14.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Farouk M. Shakhatreh, Khader J. Abdul-Baqi, Moh’d M. Turk. Hearing loss in a textile factory. Saudi Medical Journal. 2000; 21: 58–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Clark G. Uses and abuses of hearing loss classification. Asha 1981; 23: 493–500.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Christie KW, Sivan-Loukianova E, Smith C, Aldrich T, Schon A, Roy M, et al. Physiological, anatomical, and behavioral changes after acoustic trauma in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110: 15449–15454.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Nordmann S, Bohne A, Harding W. Histopathological differences between temporary and permanent threshold shift. Hear Res 2000; 139: 13–30.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Dobie A. A method for allocation of hearing handicap. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990; 103: 733–739.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Jawed I, Musani A, Mahmood R, Wadood Y, Asim M. The effect of traffic noise on the hearing level of people on Karachi streets. J Pak Med Assoc 2010; 60: 813–816.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Johnson L. In Hamernik D, Salvi R, editors. Hearing hazards associated with infrasound. New perspectives on noise induced hearing loss. NY: R. P. Raven Press; 1982. 407–421.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Suter H. Speech recognition in noise by individuals with mild hearing impairment. J Acoust Soc Am 1985; 78: 887–900.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Liberman C, Dodds W, Learson A. In: Salvi J, Henderson D, Hamernik P, Colletti V, editors. Structure-function correlation in noise-damaged ears: A light and electron-microscopic study. Basic and applied aspects of noise-induced hearing loss. New York: Plenum; 1986. 163–177.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  19. Kapadia S, Lutman E. Are normal hearing thresholds a sufficient condition for click-evoked otoacoustic emissions? J Acoust Soc Am 1997; 101: 3566–3567.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Avan P, Bonfils P, Loth D. In: Axelsson A, Hellstrom A, Borchgrevink H, Henderson D, Hamernik P, Salvi R, editors. Effects of acoustic over stimulation on distortion-product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. Stuttgart: George Thieme Verlag; 1996. 65–81.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Marshall L, Lapsley Miller A, Heller M. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions as a screening tool for noise-induced hearing loss. Paper presented at Noise Pollution Health Effects Reduction (NOPHER) 2000 International Symposium on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Cambridge, UK; 2000

  22. Vinck M, Van Cauwenberge B, Leroy L, Corthals P. Sensitivity of transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions to the direct effects of noise on the human cochlea. Audiology 1999; 38: 44–52.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Mariola S, Kowalska K. Occupational exposure to noise decreases otoacoustic emissions efferent suppression. Int J Audiol 2002; 41: 113–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ebtessam Nada MD.

Additional information

Conflicts of interest

None declared.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nada, E., Ebraheem, W.M. & Sheta, S. Noise-induced hearing loss among workers in textile factory. Egypt J Otolaryngol 30, 243–248 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: