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Table 6 Association between acoustic parameters and gender in the normal and stuttering groups

From: Acoustic characteristics of voice and speech in Arabic-speaking stuttering children

Parameters Male
n= 22
Female
n= 18
Test of significance
Normal group 1- Prolonged /a/ vowel F0 251.2 ± 33.1 287.5 ± 31.4 t= 3.6 P= 0.001*
Jitter 0.46(0.2–0.82) 0.37 (0.2–0.62) Z= 1.2 P= 0.22
Shimmer 4.4 (2.6–6.8) 4.5 (2.9–8.1) Z= 0.24 P= 0.81
H/N ratio 18.7 ± 2.5 19.1 ± 2.2 t=0.45 P= 0.63
2- Automatic speech F0 249.5 ± 40.2 271.1 ± 22.2 t=2.1 P= 0.04*
Jitter 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.4 t=0.28 P= 0.78
Shimmer 8.2 ± 1.9 7.9 ± 1.5 t=0.52 P= 0.61
H/N ratio 12.7 ± 1.7 13.5 ± 1.8 t= 1.5 P= 0.13
3- Spontaneous speech F0 257.8 ± 25.4 294.3 ± 30.5 t= 4.1 P ≤ 0.001*
Jitter 1.7 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.4 t=0.67 P= 0.51
Shimmer 8.5 (4.6–14.9) 8.2 (5.3–12.8) Z=0.08 P= 0.94
H/N ratio 13.3 ± 2.5 13.9 ± 1.8 t=0.81 P= 0.42
Stuttering group 1- Prolonged/a/ vowel F0 253.6 ± 32.4 294.9 ± 30.8 t= 4.1 P ≤ 0.001*
Jitter 0.49 (0.3–2.1) 0.54 (0.23–2.4) Z= 0.08 P= 0.94
Shimmer 4.7 (1.3–12.1) 5.7 (1.9–10.8) Z= 1.0 P= 0.31
H/N ratio 17.9 ± 4.2 17.1 ± 3.9 t=0.64 P= 0.53
2- Automatic speech F0 239.9 ± 39.4 276.1 ± 22.5 t=3.5 P= 0.001*
Jitter 1.7 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5 t=0.81 P= 0.42
Shimmer 8.7 ± 2.5 8.7 ± 3.0 t=0.05 P= 0.96
H/N ratio 13.1 ± 2.4 13.2 ± 3.7 t= 0.06 P= 0.96
3- Spontaneous speech F0 255.9 ± 48.9 301.6 ± 23.3 t=3.6 P= 0.001*
Jitter 1.8 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.4 t=1.5 P= 0.14
Shimmer 8.2 (4.7–13.8) 8.3 (1.6–14.8) Z=0.10 P= 0.92
H/N ratio 13.5 ± 3.1 14.2 ± 2.9 t=0.67 P= 0.51
  1. Data expressed as mean ± SD or median (minimum–maximum)
  2. *Significant p ≤ 0.05
  3. t, independent samples t-test
  4. Z, Mann-Whitney test