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Table 4 Within group comparison of acoustic parameters across the different samples

From: Acoustic characteristics of voice and speech in Arabic-speaking stuttering children

Items Prolonged /a/ vowel Automatic speech Spontaneous speech Test of significance
Normal group Fundamental Frequency (F0) 269.3 ± 36.8
(210–358.7)
260.3 ± 33.9
(195.3–373.3)
276.1 ± 33.3
(205.7–365.2)
F= 2.1
P= 0.13
Jitter 0.43
(0.2–0.82)
1.6
(0.98–2.2)
1.6
(1.0–3.0)
KW= 79.9
P ≤ 0.001*
Shimmer 4.5
(2.6–8.1)
7.5
(4.8–12.4)
8.2
(4.6–14.9)
KW= 66.9
P ≤ 0.001*
Harmonic to Noise ratio(H/N ratio) 18.9 ± 2.4
(15.2–25.7)
13.1 ± 1.8
(9.9–17.4)
13.6 ± 2.2
(10.1–18.0)
F=92.0
P ≤ 0.001*
Stuttering group Fundamental Frequency (F0) 272.1 ± 37.6
(207.8– 362.8)
256.2 ± 37.3
(176.4–336.1)
276.4 ± 45.4
(158.0–336.1)
F= 2.8
P= 0.06
Jitter 0.51
(0.23–2.4)
1.6
(0.8–2.6)
1.7
(0.74–2.9)
KW= 52.5
P ≤ 0.001*
Shimmer 5.3
(1.3–12.1)
8.6
(4.7–12.9)
8.2
(1.6–14.8)
KW= 23.6
P ≤ 0.001*
Harmonic to Noise ratio 17.6 ± 4.0
(8.9–25.0)
13.1 ± 3.0
(8.4–19.9)
13.8 ± 3.0
(8.5–19.7)
F=19.9
P ≤ 0.001*
  1. Data expressed as mean ± SD or median (minimum–maximum)
  2. *Significant p ≤ 0.05
  3. F, one-way ANOVA test
  4. KW, Kruskal-Wallis test