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Table 2 Five-step endoscopic airway assessment in LTS [5]

From: Adolescent and adult laryngotracheal stenosis: a review

  Modality Objective
Step I ▪ Awake fibre-optic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy
▪ Topical anaesthetic
▪ Dynamic assessment of laryngeal function
Step II ▪ Fibreoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy
▪ Spontaneous respiration
▪ General anaesthetic
▪ Assessment of vocal fold mobility
▪ Assessment of upper airway patency
Step III ▪ Transoral telescopic laryngo-tracheoscopy
▪ Muscle relaxation
▪ General anaesthetic
▪ Assessment of LTS including anatomical site, mapping, cranio-caudal length and severity
Step IV ▪ Suspension micro-laryngoscopy
▪ Supraglottic high-frequency jet-ventilation
▪ Total intravenous anaesthesia
▪ Assessment of cricoarytenoid joint mobility
▪ Assessment of LTS character (immature versus mature)
Step V ▪ Rigid/flexible bronchoesophagoscopy
▪ Supraglottic high-frequency jet-ventilation
▪ Muscle relaxation
▪ General anaesthetic
▪ Assessment of the distal airway
▪ Aspiration of tracheobronchial secretions for bacteriological investigation
  1. Adapted from: Monnier et al. [5]