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Table 2 Five-step endoscopic airway assessment in LTS [5]

From: Adolescent and adult laryngotracheal stenosis: a review




Step I

▪ Awake fibre-optic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy

▪ Topical anaesthetic

▪ Dynamic assessment of laryngeal function

Step II

▪ Fibreoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy

▪ Spontaneous respiration

▪ General anaesthetic

▪ Assessment of vocal fold mobility

▪ Assessment of upper airway patency

Step III

▪ Transoral telescopic laryngo-tracheoscopy

▪ Muscle relaxation

▪ General anaesthetic

▪ Assessment of LTS including anatomical site, mapping, cranio-caudal length and severity

Step IV

▪ Suspension micro-laryngoscopy

▪ Supraglottic high-frequency jet-ventilation

▪ Total intravenous anaesthesia

▪ Assessment of cricoarytenoid joint mobility

▪ Assessment of LTS character (immature versus mature)

Step V

▪ Rigid/flexible bronchoesophagoscopy

▪ Supraglottic high-frequency jet-ventilation

▪ Muscle relaxation

▪ General anaesthetic

▪ Assessment of the distal airway

▪ Aspiration of tracheobronchial secretions for bacteriological investigation

  1. Adapted from: Monnier et al. [5]